List Of Contents | Contents of The City of the Sun, by Tommaso Campanells
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clothing, and the intercourse of the sexes.  Love himself is
ruler, but there are many male and female magistrates dedi-
cated to these arts.

   Metaphysic, then, with these three rulers, manages all the
above-named matters, and even by himself alone nothing is
done; all business is discharged by the four together, but in
whatever Metaphysic inclines to the rest are sure to agree.

G.M.  Tell me, please, of the magistrates, their services and
duties, of the education and mode of living, whether the gov-
ernment is a monarchy, a republic, or an aristocracy.

Capt.  This race of men came there from India, flying from
the sword of the Magi, a race of plunderers and tyrants who
laid waste their country, and they determined to lead a philo-
sophic life in fellowship with one another.  Although the com-
munity of wives is not instituted among the other inhabitants
of their province, among them it is in use after this manner:
All things are common with them, and their dispensation is by
the authority of the magistrates.  Arts and honors and pleas-
ures are common, and are held in such a manner that no one
can appropriate anything to himself.

   They say that all private property is acquired and improved
for the reason that each one of us by himself has his own home
and wife and children.  From this, self-love springs.  For
when we raise a son to riches and dignities, and leave an heir to
much wealth, we become either ready to grasp at the property of
the State, if in any case fear should be removed from the power
which belongs to riches and rank; or avaricious, crafty, and
hypocritical, if anyone is of slender purse, little strength, and
mean ancestry.  But when we have taken away self-love, there
remains only love for the State.

G.M.  Under such circumstances no one will be willing to
labor, while he expects others to work, on the fruit of whose
labors he can live, as Aristotle argues against Plato.

Capt.  I do not know how to deal with that argument, but
I declare to you that they burn with so great a love for their
fatherland, as I could scarcely have believed possible; and in-
deed with much more than the histories tell us belonged to the
Romans, who fell willingly for their country, inasmuch as they
have to a greater extent surrendered their private property.
I think truly that the friars and monks and clergy of our coun-
try, if they were not weakened by love for their kindred and
friends or by the ambition to rise to higher dignities, would be
less fond of property, and more imbued with a spirit of charity
toward all, as it was in the time of the apostles, and is now in a
great many cases.

G.M.  St. Augustine may say that, but I say that among this
race of men, friendship is worth nothing, since they have not
the chance of conferring mutual benefits on one another.

Capt.  Nay, indeed.  For it is worth the trouble to see that
no one can receive gifts from another.  Whatever is necessary
they have, they receive it from the community, and the magis-
trate takes care that no one receives more than he deserves.  Yet
nothing necessary is denied to anyone.  Friendship is recog-
nized among them in war, in infirmity, in the art contests, by
which means they aid one another mutually by teaching.  Some-
times they improve themselves mutually with praises, with con-
versation, with actions, and out of the things they need.  All
those of the same age call one another brothers.  They call all
over twenty-two years of age, fathers; those that are less than
twenty-two are named sons.  Moreover, the magistrates gov-
ern well, so that no one in the fraternity can do injury to an-

G.M.  And how?

Capt.  As many names of virtues as there are among us, so
many magistrates there are among them.  There is a magis-
trate who is named Magnanimity, another Fortitude, a third
Chastity, a fourth Liberality, a fifth Criminal and Civil Justice,
a sixth Comfort, a seventh Truth, an eighth Kindness, a tenth
Gratitude, an eleventh Cheerfulness, a twelfth Exercise, a thir-
teenth Sobriety, etc.  They are elected to duties of that kind,
each one to that duty for excellence in which he is known from
boyhood to be most suitable.  Wherefore among them neither
robbery nor clever murders, nor lewdness, incest, adultery, or
other crimes of which we accuse one another, can be found.
They accuse themselves of ingratitude and malignity when any-
one denies a lawful satisfaction to another of indolence, of sad-
ness, of anger, of scurrility, of slander, and of lying, which
curseful thing they thoroughly hate.  Accused persons under-
going punishment are deprived of the common table, and other
honors, until the judge thinks that they agree with their cor-

G.M.  Tell me the manner in which the magistrates are

Capt.  You would not rightly understand this, unless you
first learned their manner of living.  That you may know, then,
men and women wear the same kind of garment, suited for war.
The women wear the toga below the knee, but the men above;
and both sexes are instructed in all the arts together.  When
this has been done as a start, and before their third year, the
boys learn the language and the alphabet on the walls by walk-
ing round them.  They have four leaders, and four elders, the
first to direct them, the second to teach them, and these are men
approved beyond all others.  After some time they exercise
themselves with gymnastics, running, quoits, and other games,
by means of which all their muscles are strengthened alike.
Their feet are always bare, and so are their heads as far as the
seventh ring.  Afterward they lead them to the offices of the
trades, such as shoemaking, cooking, metal-working, carpentry,
painting, etc.  In order to find out the bent of the genius of
each one, after their seventh year, when they have already gone
through the mathematics on the walls, they take them to the
readings of all the sciences; there are four lectures at each read-
ing, and in the course of four hours the four in their order ex-
plain everything.

   For some take physical exercise or busy themselves with pub-
lic services or functions, others apply themselves to reading.
Leaving these studies all are devoted to the more abstruse sub-
jects, to mathematics, to medicine, and to other sciences.  There
are continual debate and studied argument among them, and
after a time they become magistrates of those sciences or me-
chanical arts in which they are the most proficient; for every-
one follows the opinion of his leader and judge, and goes out
to the plains to the works of the field, and for the purpose of
becoming acquainted with the pasturage of the dumb animals.
And they consider him the more noble and renowned who has
dedicated himself to the study of the most arts and knows how
to practise them wisely.  Wherefore they laugh at us in that we
consider our workmen ignoble, and hold those to be noble who
have mastered no pursuit, but live in ease and are so many
slaves given over to their own pleasure and lasciviousness; and
thus, as it were, from a school of vices so many idle and wicked
fellows go forth for the ruin of the State.

   The rest of the officials, however, are chosen by the four
chiefs, Hoh, Pon, Sin and Mor, and by the teachers of that art
over which they are fit to preside.  And these teachers know
well who is most suited for rule.  Certain men are proposed
by the magistrates in council, they themselves not seeking to
become candidates, and he opposes who knows anything against
those brought forward for election, or, if not, speaks in favor
of them.  But no one attains to the dignity of Hoh except him
who knows the histories of the nations, and their customs and
sacrifices and laws, and their form of government, whether a
republic or a monarchy.  He must also know the names of the
lawgivers and the inventors in science, and the laws and the
history of the earth and the heavenly bodies.  They think it
also necessary that he should understand all the mechanical
arts, the physical sciences, astrology and mathematics.  Near-
ly every two days they teach our mechanical art.  They are not
allowed to overwork themselves, but frequent practice and the
paintings render learning easy to them.  Not too much care
is given to the cultivation of languages, as they have a goodly
number of interpreters who are grammarians in the State.
But beyond everything else it is necessary that Hoh should
understand metaphysics and theology; that he should know
thoroughly the derivations, foundations, and demonstrations of
all the arts and sciences; the likeness and difference of things;
necessity, fate, and the harmonies of the universe; power, wis-
dom, and the love of things and of God; the stages of life and
its symbols; everything relating to the heavens, the earth, and
the sea; and the ideas of God, as much as mortal man can know
of him.  He must also be well read in the prophets and in as-
trology.  And thus they know long beforehand who will be
Hoh.  He is not chosen to so great a dignity unless he has at-
tained his thirty-fifth year.  And this office is perpetual, be-
cause it is not known who may be too wise for it or who too
skilled in ruling.

G.M.  Who indeed can be so wise?  If even anyone has a
knowledge of the sciences it seems that he must be unskilled
in ruling.

Capt.  This very question I asked them and they replied
thus: "We, indeed, are more certain that such a very learned
man has the knowledge of governing, than you who place ig-
norant persons in authority, and consider them suitable merely
because they have sprung from rulers or have been chosen by a
powerful faction.  But our Hoh, a man really the most capable
to rule, is for all that never cruel nor wicked, nor a tyrant, inas-
much as he possesses so much wisdom.  This, moreover, is not
unknown to you, that the same argument cannot apply among
you, when you consider that man the most learned who knows
most of grammar, or logic, or of Aristotle or any other author.
For such knowledge as this of yours much servile labor and
memory work are required, so that a man is rendered unskilful,
since he has contemplated nothing but the words of books and
has given his mind with useless result to the consideration of
the dead signs of things.  Hence he knows not in what way
God rules the universe, nor the ways and customs of nature and
the nations.  Wherefore he is not equal to our Hoh.  For that
one cannot know so many arts and sciences thoroughly, who is
not esteemed for skilled ingenuity, very apt at all things, and
therefore at ruling especially.  This also is plain to us that he
who knows only one science, does not really know either that
or the others, and he who is suited for only one science and has
gathered his knowledge from books, is unlearned and unskilled.
But this is not the case with intellects prompt and expert in
every branch of knowledge and suitable for the consideration
of natural objects, as it is necessary that our Hoh should be.
Besides in our State the sciences are taught with a facility (as
you have seen) by which more scholars are turned out by us
in one year than by you in ten, or even fifteen.  Make trial, I
pray you, of these boys."

   In this matter I was struck with astonishment at their truth-
ful discourse and at the trial of their boys, who did not under-
stand my language well.  Indeed it is necessary that three of
them should be skilled in our tongue, three in Arabic, three in
Polish, and three in each of the other languages, and no recrea-
tion is allowed them unless they become more learned.  For
that they go out to the plain for the sake of running about and
hurling arrows and lances, and of firing harquebuses, and for
the sake of hunting the wild animals and getting a knowledge
of plants and stones, and agriculture and pasturage; sometimes
the band of boys does one thing, sometimes another.

   They do not consider it necessary that the three rulers assist-
ing Hoh should know other than the arts having reference to
their rule, and so they have only a historical knowledge of the
arts which are common to all.  But their own they know well,
to which certainly one is dedicated more than another.  Thus
Power is the most learned in the equestrian art, in marshalling
the army, in the marking out of camps, in the manufacture of
every kind of weapon and of warlike machines, in planning
stratagems, and in every affair of a military nature.  And for
these reasons, they consider it necessary that these chiefs
should have been philosophers, historians, politicians, and
physicists.  Concerning the other two triumvirs, understand
remarks similar to those I have made about Power.

G.M.  I really wish that you would recount all their public
duties, and would distinguish between them, and also that you
would tell clearly how they are all taught in common.

Capt.  They have dwellings in common and dormitories, and
couches and other necessaries.  But at the end of every six
months they are separated by the masters.  Some shall sleep in
this ring, some in another; some in the first apartment, and
some in the second; and these apartments are marked by means
of the alphabet on the lintel.  There are occupations, mechani-
cal and theoretical, common to both men and women, with this
difference, that the occupations which require more hard work,
and walking a long distance, are practised by men, such as
ploughing, sowing, gathering the fruits, working at the thresh-
ing-floor, and perchance at the vintage.  But it is customary to
choose women for milking the cows and for making cheese.  In
like manner, they go to the gardens near to the outskirts of the
city both for collecting the plants and for cultivating them.  In
fact, all sedentary and stationary pursuits are practised by the
women, such as weaving, spinning, sewing, cutting the hair,
shaving, dispensing medicines, and making all kinds of gar-
ments.  They are, however, excluded from working in wood
and the manufacture of arms.  If a woman is fit to paint, she
is not prevented from doing so; nevertheless, music is given
over to the women alone, because they please the more, and of
a truth to boys also.  But the women have not the practise of
the drum and the horn.

   And they prepare their feasts and arrange the tables in the
following manner.  It is the peculiar work of the boys and
girls under twenty to wait at the tables.  In every ring there
are suitable kitchens, barns, and stores of utensils for eating
and drinking, and over every department an old man and an old
woman preside.  These two have at once the command of those
who serve, and the power of chastising, or causing to be chas-
tised, those who are negligent or disobedient; and they also
examine and mark each one, both male and female, who excels
in his or her duties.

   All the young people wait upon the older ones who have
passed the age of forty, and in the evening when they go to
sleep the master and mistress command that those should be
sent to work in the morning, upon whom in succession the duty

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