List Of Contents | Contents of The City of the Sun, by Tommaso Campanells
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most excellent workmen obey the magistrates, the men of each
art paying allegiance to their respective chiefs.  Moreover,
Power is at the head of all the professors of gymnastics, who
teach military exercise, and who are prudent generals, advanced
in age.  By these the boys are trained after their twelfth year.
Before this age, however, they have been accustomed to wres-
tling, running, throwing the weight, and other minor exercises,
under inferior masters.  But at twelve they are taught how to
strike at the enemy, at horses and elephants, to handle the spear,
the sword, the arrow, and the sling; to manage the horse, to
advance and to retreat, to remain in order of battle, to help a
comrade in arms, to anticipate the enemy by cunning, and to

   The women also are taught these arts under their own magis-
trates and mistresses, so that they may be able if need be to
render assistance to the males in battles near the city.  They
are taught to watch the fortifications lest at some time a hasty
attack should suddenly be made.  In this respect they praise the
Spartans and Amazons.  The women know well also how to
let fly fiery balls, and how to make them from lead; how to
throw stones from pinnacles and to go in the way of an attack.
They are accustomed also to give up wine unmixed altogether,
and that one is punished most severely who shows any fear.

   The inhabitants of the City of the Sun do not fear death,
because they all believe that the soul is immortal, and that when
it has left the body it is associated with other spirits, wicked or
good, according to the merits of this present life.  Although
they are partly followers of Brahma and Pythagoras, they do
not believe in the transmigration of souls, except in some cases
by a distinct decree of God.  They do not abstain from injuring
an enemy of the republic and of religion, who is unworthy of
pity.  During the second month the army is reviewed, and every
day there is practice of arms, either in the cavalry plain or
within the walls.  Nor are they ever without lectures on the
science of war.  They take care that the accounts of Moses, of
Joshua, of David, of Judas Maccabaeus, of Caesar, of Alexander,
of Scipio, of Hannibal, and other great soldiers should be read.
And then each one gives his own opinion as to whether these
generals acted well or ill, usefully or honorably, and then the
teacher answers and says who are right.

G.M.  With whom do they wage war, and for what reasons,
since they are so prosperous?

Capt.  Wars might never occur, nevertheless they are exer-
cised in military tactics and in hunting, lest perchance they
should become effeminate and unprepared for any emergency.
Besides, there are four kingdoms in the island, which are very
envious of their prosperity, for this reason that the people de-
sire to live after the manner of the inhabitants of the City of
the Sun, and to be under their rule rather than that of their
own kings.  Wherefore the State often makes war upon these
because, being neighbors, they are usurpers and live impiously,
since they have not an object of worship and do not observe the
religion of other nations or of the Brahmins.  And other
nations of India, to which formerly they were subject, rise up
as it were in rebellion, as also do the Taprobanese, whom they
wanted to join them at first.  The warriors of the City of the
Sun, however, are always the victors.  As soon as they suffered
from insult or disgrace or plunder, or when their allies have
been harassed, or a people have been oppressed by a tyrant of
the State (for they are always the advocates of liberty), they
go immediately to the Council for deliberation.  After they
have knelt in the presence of God, that he might inspire their
consultation, they proceed to examine the merits of the busi-
ness, and thus war is decided on.  Immediately after, a priest,
whom they call Forensic, is sent away.  He demands from the
enemy the restitution of the plunder, asks that the allies should
be freed from oppression, or that the tyrant should be deposed.
If they deny these things war is declared by invoking the ven-
geance of God -- the God of Sabaoth -- for destruction of those
who maintain an unjust cause.  But if the enemy refuse to re-
ply, the priest gives him the space of one hour for his answer,
if he is a king, but three if it is a republic, so that they cannot
escape giving a response.  And in this manner is war under-
taken against the insolent enemies of natural rights and of re-
ligion.  When war has been declared, the deputy of Power
performs everything, but Power, like the Roman dictator, plans
and wills everything, so that hurtful tardiness may be avoided.
And when anything of great moment arises he consults Hoh
and Wisdom and Love.

   Before this, however, the occasion of war and the justice of
making an expedition are declared by a herald in the great
Council.  All from twenty years and upward are admitted to
this Council, and thus the necessaries are agreed upon.  All
kinds of weapons stand in the armories, and these they use often
in sham fights.  The exterior walls of each ring are full of
guns prepared by their labors, and they have other engines for
hurling which are called cannons, and which they take into
battle upon mules and asses and carriages.  When they have
arrived in an open plain they enclose in the middle the provis-
ions, engines of war, chariots, ladders, and machines, and all
fight courageously.  Then each one returns to the standards,
and the enemy thinking that they are giving and preparing to
flee, are deceived and relax their order: then the warriors of
the City of the Sun, wheeling into wings and columns on each
side, regain their breath and strength, and ordering the artillery
to discharge their bullets they resume the fight against a disor-
ganized host.  And they observe many ruses of this kind.
They overcome all mortals with their stratagems and engines.
Their camp is fortified after the manner of the Romans.  They
pitch their tents and fortify with wall and ditch with wonderful
quickness.  The masters of works, of engines and hurling
machines, stand ready, and the soldiers understand the use of
the spade and the axe.

   Five, eight, or ten leaders learned in the order of battle and
in strategy consult together concerning the business of war,
and command their bands after consultation.  It is their wont
to take out with them a body of boys, armed and on horses, so
that they may learn to fight, just as the whelps of lions and
wolves are accustomed to blood.  And these in time of danger
betake themselves to a place of safety, along with many armed
women.  After the battle the women and boys soothe and re-
lieve the pain of the warriors, and wait upon them and encour-
age them with embraces and pleasant words.  How wonderful
a help is this!  For the soldiers, in order that they may acquit
themselves as sturdy men in the eyes of their wives and off-
spring, endure hardships, and so love makes them conquerors.
He who in the fight first scales the enemy's walls receives after
the battle of a crown of grass, as a token of honor, and at the
presentation the women and boys applaud loudly; that one who
affords aid to an ally gets a civic crown of oak-leaves; he who
kills a tyrant dedicates his arms in the temple and receives from
Hoh the cognomen of his deed, and other warriors obtain other
kinds of crowns.

   Every horse-soldier carries a spear and two strongly tem-
pered pistols, narrow at the mouth, hanging from his saddle.
And to get the barrels of their pistols narrow they pierce the
metal which they intend to convert into arms.  Further, every
cavalry soldier has a sword and a dagger.  But the rest, who
form the light-armed troops, carry a metal cudgel.  For if the
foe cannot pierce their metal for pistols and cannot make
swords, they attack him with clubs, shatter and overthrow him.
Two chains of six spans length hang from the club, and at the
end of these are iron balls, and when these are aimed at the
enemy they surround his neck and drag him to the ground; and
in order that they may be able to use the club more easily, they
do not hold the reins with their hands, but use them by means
of the feet.  If perchance the reins are interchanged above the
trappings of the saddle, the ends are fastened to the stirrups
with buckles, and not to the feet.  And the stirrups have an ar-
rangement for swift movement of the bridle, so that they draw
in or let out the rein with marvellous celerity.  With the right
foot they turn the horse to the left, and with the left to the right.
This secret, moreover, is not known to the Tartars.  For, al-
though they govern the reins with their feet, they are ignorant
nevertheless of turning them and drawing them in and letting
them out by means of the block of the stirrups.  The light-
armed cavalry with them are the first to engage in battle, then
the men forming the phalanx with their spears, then the archers
for whose services a great price is paid, and who are accus-
tomed to fight in lines crossing one another as the threads of
cloth, some rushing forward in their turn and others receding.
They have a band of lancers strengthening the line of battle,
but they make trial of the swords only at the end.

   After the battle they celebrate the military triumphs after the
manner of the Romans, and even in a more magnificent way.
Prayers by the way of thank-offerings are made to God, and
then the general presents himself in the temple, and the deeds,
good and bad, are related by the poet or historian, who accord-
ing to custom was with the expedition.  And the greatest chief,
Hoh, crowns the general with laurel and distributes little gifts
and honors to all the valorous soldiers, who are for some days
free from public duties.  But this exemption from work is by
no means pleasing to them, since they know not what it is to be
at leisure, and so they help their companions.  On the other
hand, they who have been conquered through their own fault,
or have lost the victory, are blamed; and they who were the first
to take to flight are in no way worthy to escape death, unless
when the whole army asks their lives, and each one takes upon
himself a part of their punishment.  But this indulgence is
rarely granted, except when there are good reasons favoring it.
But he who did not bear help to an ally or friend is beaten with
rods.  That one who did not obey orders is given to the beasts,
in an enclosure, to be devoured, and a staff is put in his hand,
and if he should conquer the lions and the bears that are there,
which is almost impossible, he is received into favor again.
The conquered States or those willingly delivered up to them,
forthwith have all things in common, and receive a garrison
and magistrates from the City of the Sun, and by degrees they
are accustomed to the ways of the city, the mistress of all, to
which they even send their sons to be taught without contribut-
ing anything for expense.

   It would be too great trouble to tell you about the spies and
their master, and about the guards and laws and ceremonies,
both within and without the State, which you can of yourself
imagine.  Since from childhood they are chosen according to
their inclination and the star under which they were born,
therefore each one working according to his natural propensity
does his duty well and pleasantly, because naturally.  The same
things I may say concerning strategy and the other functions.

   There are guards in the city by day and by night, and they
are placed at the four gates, and outside the walls of the seventh
ring, above the breastworks and towers and inside mounds.
These places are guarded in the day by women, in the night by
men.  And lest the guard should become weary of watching,
and in case of a surprise, they change them every three hours,
as is the custom with our soldiers.  At sunset, when the drum
and symphonia sound, the armed guards are distributed.  Cav-
alry and infantry make use of hunting as the symbol of war
and practise games and hold festivities in the plains.  Then
the music strikes up, and freely they pardon the offences and
faults of the enemy, and after the victories they are kind to
them, if it has been decreed that they should destroy the walls
of the enemy's city and take their lives.  All these things are
done on the same day as the victory, and afterward they never
cease to load the conquered with favors, for they say that there
ought to be no fighting, except when the conquerors give up the
conquered, not when they kill them.  If there is a dispute
among them concerning injury or any other matter (for they
themselves scarcely ever contend except in matters of honor),
the chief and his magistrates chastise the accused one secretly,
if he has done harm in deeds after he has been first angry.  If
they wait until the time of the battle for the verbal decision,
they must give vent to their anger against the enemy, and he
who in battle shows the most daring deeds is considered to have
defended the better and truer cause in the struggle, and the
other yields, and they are punished justly.  Nevertheless, they
are not allowed to come to single combat, since right is main-
tained by the tribunal, and because the unjust cause is often
apparent when the more just succumbs, and he who professes
to be the better man shows this in public fight.

G.M.  This is worth while, so that factions should not be
cherished for the harm of the fatherland, and so that civil wars
might not occur, for by means of these a tyrant often arises, as
the examples of Rome and Athens show.  Now, I pray you,
tell me of their works and matter connected therewith.

Capt.  I believe that you have already heard about their
military affairs and about their agricultural and pastoral life,
and in what way these are common to them, and how they
honor with the first grade of nobility whoever is considered to
have knowledge of these.  They who are skilful in more arts
than these they consider still nobler, and they set that one apart
for teaching the art in which he is most skilful.  The occupa-
tions which require the most labor, such as working in metals
and building, are the most praiseworthy among them.  No
one declines to go to these occupations, for the reason that from
the beginning their propensities are well known, and among
them, on account of the distribution of labor, no one does work
harmful to him, but only that which is necessary for him.  The
occupations entailing less labor belong to the women.  All of
them are expected to know how to swim, and for this reason
ponds are dug outside the walls of the city and within them
near to the fountains.

   Commerce is of little use to them, but they know the value of
money, and they count for the use of their ambassadors and ex-
plorers, so that with it they may have the means of living.
They receive merchants into their States from the different
countries of the world, and these buy the superfluous goods of
the city.  The people of the City of the Sun refuse to take

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